South Africa is experiencing major political, economic and social changes and in its policy orientation towards the event of globalisation. These changes are intended for the empowerment of those previously disadvantaged and for the levelling of the playing field for future equality of opportunities. In empowering these individuals it is recognised that agriculture is one of the important sectors that would serve as a vehicle for the development of the country. It is the main source of economic growth and the bedrock of economic development.
Agriculture depends strongly on land, which is also an asset that can be used to generate income. For this reason land reform in the form of grants is one of the important tools employed in South Africa to redistribute land to the disadvantaged in order to enable them to improve their income and also to develop rural areas. As this programme is based on a market-assisted approach, its success depends on land markets that function well and are stable enough to carry it.
The objective of this study was to determine the state of land redistribution and to analyse the land market in the Boland region of the Western Cape Province. The effectiveness of land redistribution was analysed with regard to the number of transactions that took place in the years 1998, 1999 and 2000 in terms of citizenship, race, mode of land acquisition amongst the disadvantaged (government grants, private acquisitions and inheritances), quantity and quality factors. The findings were discussed in terms of their implications for the success of the programme and their influence of the land market. Finally recommendations were made for potential improvements as well as for further research.
It was found that land redistribution by means of government grants was rather slow and most of the transactions took place through private purchases, mostly through mortgage loans provided by the Land Bank of South Africa. Although private transactions redistributed -more-wealth measured in terms of size pf land, the accompanying land was less superior using price per hectare as a proxy for quality compared to land purchased with the assistance of the government. Transactions for the latter were mainly through joint ventures with current owners. The study also revealed that the land market in the Boland is one of the major obstacles to the speedy transfer of land not because of the foreign investment, but due to the nature of the sectors. The two main agricultural sectors are viticulture and deciduous fruit which have experience high growth in income and export. The analysis conducted established that there was no significant difference between properties bought by foreigners, white and Black South Africans. Future trends in land prices could not be predicted but it is expected that agricultural land prices will be well above the capitalisation value of future profits arising from the level of foreign investment as well as economic gain.
Based on the finding the areas to be emphasised by the land reform programme in this region are joint venturing and the promotion of subsidies on mortgage loans as well as extending the government’s role in the land market. Increased government spending and involvement of the private sector, including financial institutions and established commercial farmers, are some of the things to be encouraged to facilitate the process and ultimately to overcome poverty. The sole reliance on the current regional land market seems incapable of effectively and speedily redistributing land to beneficiaries, whereby equality can be achieved in the long run. However, if all the shortcomings of the land market are recognised and a new policy is adopted, land reform in the Boland and in South Africa will in the future be more likely to promote increased access to land, resulting in higher productivity, growth and a globally competitive agriculture.
|Subject||Agriarian leadership, incl. management|
|Subject 2||Agriarian leadership, incl. management|
|Degree Type||Masters degree|